Chronology

17th Century

August 1641, Altona
King Christian IV of Denmark, etc., in his capacity as Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, and Dithmarschen, grants the Ashkenazi Jews in Altona a Letter of Protection and confirms the privileges individually listed [“General Privilege”]
Numerous handwritten copies of this document have been preserved in the State Archives of Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg in addition to contemporary printed versions and excerpts from the 17th and 18th centuries. This alone testifies to its significance. Both the official original of this “General Privilege”—which ... Show Source >
1644, Hamburg
Johannes Müller: Judaism, Hamburg, 1644, chapter “On the Jews’ residence: Whether Christians can with good conscience permit Jews to live in their midst”, pp. 1385–1395
This excerpt is a passage from a reference work published in 1644 by the pastor of the church St. Petri in Hamburg, Johannes Müller (1626–1672), under the title Judaismus oder Judenthumb [Judaism]. Over a thousand pages long, this work, intended for a general audience, was published by Zacharias Hertel, ... Show Source >

18th Century

September 07, 1710, Hamburg
New Decree for the Jewish Population of Hamburg/ Both the Portuguese and the High German Nation, from the Date 7 September in the Year 1710. Hamburg (the so-called Judenreglement) [Excerpt]
The power struggle that broke out between the Senate and the Citizens‘ Council of the city at the end of 17th century could, it was hoped, be resolved with the help of a revised constitution that would restore political stability. The Imperial Decree for Jews of 1710, the Judenreglement, became a legal ... Show Source >
1714, Hamburg
Report of the Pastor Johann Jacob Schudt on an Encounter with the “Wealthy“ Jew Diego Teixeira in Hamburg, 1714
This excerpt is taken from the book Jüdische Merckwürdigkeiten (“Jewish Notabilia”) published by the rector of a gymnasium in Frankfurt am Main, Johann Jacob Schudt, in four volumes between 1714 and 1717. Himself a Lutheran, Schudt illustrates the anti-Judaic stance typical of this age in his observations ... Show Source >
April 08, 1774, Altona
The Testament of Jitte, Daughter of Matthias Glückstadt, Altona, April 8, 1774
Jitte Glückstadt, an unmarried Jewish woman in Altona, had her last will and testament recorded on April 8, 1774. A testament (from the Latin testare, to testify or bear witness to) enables a person to arrange what is to happen to one’s personal property after death, as well as the details of the burial ... Show Source >

19th Century

1818, Leipzig
Ludolf Holst, On the Relationship of the Jews to the Christians in Commercial Towns, Leipzig 1818
Since 1799 Ludolf Holst (1756–1825) had gained a reputation in Hamburg as an economic expert. Having studied theology and law, he worked as a private tutor and was married to women’s rights advocate Amalia Holst. Since 1799 he devoted himself to economic issues relevant to Hamburg, a topic on which he ... Show Source >
May 04, 1848, Hamburg
Letter to the Board of the German-Israelite Congregation in Hamburg Regarding the Adoption of Fixed Family Names, Hamburg, May 4, 1848
When Hamburg's council granted the city's Jews permission to acquire the right of citizenship The right of self-government; the precondition for acquiring civic rights was inherited real property, the swearing of a citizen's oath, and the one-time payment of "Bürgergeld" [citizenship fee]; members of ... Show Source >
February 21, 1849, Hamburg
Provisional Decree for the Purpose of Introducing Article 16 of the Basic Rights of the German People with Regard to the Israelites. Passed by a Resolution of the Council and the City Assembly on February 21, 1849. Published on the Order of E. H. eines Hochedlen [a Highly Noble] Councilor of the Hanseatic City of Hamburg, Hamburg 1849
This source documents a resolution passed by the Hamburg city council and city assembly that largely granted Hamburg’s Jews legal and economic equality with the city’s other residents. At a meeting of both the city council and assembly held on February 21, 1849, the council asked the Erbgesessene Bürgerschaft ... Show Source >
June 1862, Hamburg
Julius Stettenheim, The Jew-Eater. Hope You Like It!, Hamburg 1862
In June 1862, the satirist Julius Stettenheim published a four-page lampoon (Hamburg) with the title “The Jew-Eater – Hope you Like it!” It contained a caricature and a seven-stanza poem entitled “Mad Spook of a Summer Night’s Dream.” The pamphlet was borne on poles, proclaimed by its bearers throughout ... Show Source >
June 22, 1862, Hamburg
Wilhelm Marr, A Mirror to the Jews, Hamburg , Hamburg 1862 (5th edition)
On June 22, 1862, Wilhelm Marr published the first edition of his work, Der Judenspiegel (editions 1-4, 56 pp), with the second through fourth editions appearing within a few weeks. The fifth edition, which will be quoted from here unless otherwise noted, was published in the same year, however with ... Show Source >
October 22, 1865, Hamburg
Funerary Monument to Dr. Gabriel Riesser (1806–1863) at Ohlsdorf Cemetery, Hamburg (1865)
Three-tiered classicist funerary monument made of sandstone and white marble, ca. 400x170x100 cm (without foundation). A base made of Oberkirchen sandstone supports the marble middle section featuring a frontal mid-relief framed by four Corinthian columns bearing a gabled roof with six acroteria. The ... Show Source >
February 10, 1892, Hamburg
First Senate Ruling of February 10, 1892 Approving the Petitioner’s “Application to Change His Name”
This one-page, handwritten ruling is the reply to a request submitted in 1892 by then 21-year-old Hans Julius Oppenheim. He had asked permission to use the family name Lübbert-Oppenheim instead of Oppenheim, his last name until then. The senate approved his name change, but not in the form he requested: ... Show Source >
1894, Boston
Mary Antin's Letter to her Uncle Moshe Hayyim Weltman, 1894 [Extract]
In 1894 Mary Antin (born Maryasche Antin) from the Belarusian town of Polotzk, her mother and three siblings traveled via Hamburg to Boston, her father already having gone ahead. Immediately after her arrival in 1894, Mary Antin gave an account of her voyage in a letter to her maternal uncle, Moshe Hayyim ... Show Source >
October 01, 1898, Hamburg
The Police Authority. Department II (Political and Criminal Investigation Unit), Report by Constable Erxleben. Re: Observations Carried out in the Streets and Public Houses, Hamburg, October 1st, 1898
This source is one of ca. 20,000 reports written by police spies about conversations they overheard in Hamburg pubs and in public spaces between the end of 1892 and the end of 1910. When the Anti-Socialist Law  The “Law against the Publicly Dangerous Endeavors of Social Democracy,” [Sozialistengesetz] ... Show Source >

1900s

20. / 22. / 25.12.1904, Berlin
“On the Road With Ballin.” Hamburg 1904
On December 10, 1904, the police inspector in charge of HAPAG’s emigration halls at the port of Hamburg, Wenzel Kilian Kiliszewski, noticed a man calling himself “Jossl Kalischer.” Claiming to be a Jewish migrant from the Russian empire, he turned out to be Julius Kaliski, editor of the Social Democrat’s ... Show Source >
vor 1905, Hamburg
The Memoirs of Our Father, Joseph Berkowitz Kohn, copy presumably written by his daughter, Sophie Berkowitz-Kohn, Hamburg
Joseph Berkowitz Kohn’s “memoirs” give an account of the eventful life of a Jew born in the Polish town of Leczyca in 1841 who participated in various struggles for emancipation in his homeland. In 1863 Berkowitz Kohn was forced to flee Poland and went to Hamburg, where he set up his own business as ... Show Source >
October 1905, Hamburg
Call for the Founding of a Jewish Library and Reading Room, Hamburg, October 1905
This appeal is part of the files on the administration and organization of the Jewish congregations of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbek, which are housed at the Staatsarchiv Hamburg. Among these files (signature 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinden 1691-1945, lot 887 “Jüdische Bibliothek und Lesehalle 1908[!]-1928”) ... Show Source >
1907, Hamburg
Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland [Aid Organization of German Jews], from Annual Report, 1907 [Excerpt]
The business reports of the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden [Aid Organization of German Jews] were published annually since 1902 and documented in great detail the emigration trends among eastern European and especially Russian and Galician Jews. In the appendix to the sixth business report presented ... Show Source >

1910s

June 1910, Hamburg
Handwritten Notebook of Albert Ballin, Hamburg, June 1910 [Excerpt]
Over a period of 11 years, from May 31, 1902 until March 31, 1913, HAPAG’s general director, Albert Ballin, kept a hand-written notebook in which he listed the names of guests visiting his city apartment at Hamburg’s Badestraße 23 (beginning in 1902), his country house in Hamfelde near Trittau (as of ... Show Source >
March 19, 1911, Hamburg
By-Laws of the Israelite-Humanitarian Women’s Association of Hamburg, dated March 19, 1911 (Hamburg 1912)
Founded in 1893, the Israelite-Humanitarian Women’s Association [Israelitisch-humanitärer Frauenverein] advocated for women’s rights as well as social policy issues in Hamburg and explicitly addressed a Jewish audience. The source presented here is a printed copy of the association’s by-laws of March ... Show Source >
January 28, 1915, New York
Letter from Jacob H. Schiff (New York) to Max Warburg (Hamburg), January 28, 1915
This letter by Jacob H. Schiff of New York, who was born in Frankfurt in 1847 and had emigrated to the United States in 1865, to Max M. Warburg in Hamburg was written with the events and political constellations in mind which had formed since the outbreak of the First World War in Europe in the summer ... Show Source >

1920s

Otto Armin (=Alfred Roth), The Jews in the Army. A statistical analysis based on official sources, Munich 1919
This text titled “The Jews in the Army” was written by Alfred Roth, who concealed his identity by using the pseudonym Otto Armin, a combination of the first names of his two sons. It was published in early 1920 by Munich-based Deutscher Volks-Verlag and had a print run of 10,000 copies. The publishing ... Show Source >
February 1921, Hamburg
German-Jewish War Veterans’ Association [Vaterländischer Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten]. From the Advertising Committee: Call for a Jewish Memorial Cemetery, Hamburg 1921
This February 1921 call for donations for the establishment of a memorial cemetery for Jews who had died in the First World War, which was to be located at the Jewish Ilandkoppel cemetery (Ohlsdorf), met with broad support from community institutions and the three religious associations. Among the signatories ... Show Source >
vor 1922, Hamburg
Poster Stamps Printed by the Deutscher Schutz- und Trutzbund, Hamburg, before 1922
The collection of Hamburg’s Forschungsstelle für Zeitgeschichte [Research Centre for Contemporary History] contains numerous examples of antisemitic poster stamps printed from 1919 to 1922 by the large organization Deutschvölkischer Schutz- und Trutz-Bund (DSTB) [German Nationalist Protection and Defiance ... Show Source >
May 24, 1923, Wrocław
Moses Hoffmann: Rabbinical Opinion on the Eligibility of Women for Office in the Community, Wrocław, May 24, 1923 [copy]
This rabbinical opinion by Rabbi Moses Jehuda Hoffmann on the question of women’s right to vote was written in May 1923 at the request of Hamburg’s German-Israelite Synagogue Association [Deutsch-Israelitischer Synagogenverband]. Rabbinical opinions are written in order to decide arguments regarding ... Show Source >
Anita Rée, “Weiße Bäume in Positano” [White Trees in Positano], 1925
Anita Rée’s 1925 painting “White Trees in Positano” can be considered the most important work from her years in Italy. In the early 1920s the Hamburg painter had spent several years in the Italian village of Positano. During her time there she studied the architecture of this mountain village, its landscape ... Show Source >
September 20, 1928, Hamburg
The “Israelitisches Familienblatt” and Its Support of Jewish Ceremonial Art, September 20, 1928
This announcement from the Israelitisches Familienblatt [Israelite Family Paper] no. 38, September 20, 1928, supplement “Aus alter und neuer Zeit” [Times Old and New] no. 27, is more than just an advertisement calling for participation in a contest by stressing the valuable prizes to be won. For it also ... Show Source >
October 28, 1929, Hamburg
Obituary for Aby Warburg in the Hamburger Fremdenblatt, October 28, 1929
This source is an obituary first published by the art historian Erwin Panofsky in the Hamburger Fremdenblatt on 28.10.1929 following his elder colleague Aby Warburg’s death on 26.10.1929. However, it is more than the record of an art historian’s life. Born in Hannover in 1892, and educated in Berlin, ... Show Source >

1930s

February 04, 1930, Hamburg
Letter from the Deputation of Commerce, Shipping, and Trade to the Administration of Abattoirs and Livestock Markets, Hamburg, February 4, 1930
This selection of sources—a total of five documents—is taken from the files of Hamburg’s administration of abattoirs and livestock markets. The official files document part of the correspondence between the heads of the Deputation for, Commerce, Shipping, and Trade [Deputation für Handel, Schiffahrt ... Show Source >
April 02, 1930, Hamburg
Letter from the Office of the Chief Rabbito the Administration of Abattoirs and Livestock Markets, Hamburg, April 2, 1930
This selection of sources—a total of five documents—is taken from the files of Hamburg’s administration of abattoirs and livestock markets. The official files document part of the correspondence between the heads of the Deputation for, Commerce, Shipping, and Trade [Deputation für Handel, Schiffahrt ... Show Source >
July 1930, Zinnowitz
The Zinnowitz Song, Post Card, 1930
This postcard was sold in souvenir shops in the Baltic resort of Zinnowitz alongside the usual souvenir postcards. Tourists of an antisemitic bent could send them to likeminded people as a greeting or use it to sing along when the Zinnowitz resort band played the song at the finale of each concert. The ... Show Source >
October 09, 1930, Hamburg
Letter from the Office of the Chief Rabbi to the Administration of Abattoirs and Livestock Markets, Hamburg, October 9, 1930
This selection of sources—a total of five documents—is taken from the files of Hamburg’s administration of abattoirs and livestock markets. The official files document part of the correspondence between the heads of the Deputation for, Commerce, Shipping, and Trade [Deputation für Handel, Schiffahrt ... Show Source >
October 17, 1930, Hamburg
Letter from the Office of the Chief Rabbi to the Administration of Abattoirs and Livestock Markets, Hamburg, October 17, 1930
This selection of sources—a total of five documents—is taken from the files of Hamburg’s administration of abattoirs and livestock markets. The official files document part of the correspondence between the heads of the Deputation for, Commerce, Shipping, and Trade [Deputation für Handel, Schiffahrt ... Show Source >
October 22, 1930, Hamburg
Letter from the Deputation for Commerce, Shipping, and Trade to the Administration of Abattoirs and Livestock Markets, Hamburg, October 22, 1930
This selection of sources—a total of five documents—is taken from the files of Hamburg’s administration of abattoirs and livestock markets. The official files document part of the correspondence between the heads of the Deputation for, Commerce, Shipping, and Trade [Deputation für Handel, Schiffahrt ... Show Source >
April 13, 1932, Hamburg
Flyer by the Hamburg Chapter of the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbüger jüdischen Glaubens [Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith ], April 1932
This flyer was published by the Hamburg chapter of the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbüger jüdischen Glaubens [Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith] and distributed on April 13, 1932 as a supplement to the newspaper Hamburger Fremdenblatt, which had a print run of ca. 150,000 copies.In ... Show Source >
March 29, 1933, Hamburg
Radio Broadcast By Karl Kaufmann: “Against the Lies of Our Enemies about Supposed Events in Hamburg,” Reichssender Hamburg, March 29, 1933
This radio address by Karl Kaufmann, NSDAP Gauleiter in Hamburg, which was broadcast on March 29, 1933 by Norddeutscher Rundfunk, was part of a nationwide campaign which culminated in the “boycott against Jews” of April 1, 1933. His address provides insight into the National Socialist image of “the Jews.” ... Show Source >
June 1933, Hamburg
Appeal by the Provisional Board of the Sports Club “Schild” Organized by the German-Jewish War Veterans’ Association’s Hamburg Chapter, June 1933
This source is a letter published by the sports club “Schild” run by the Hamburg chapter of the Vaterländischer Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten e.V. [German-Jewish War Veterans’ Association]. It appeals to all male and female Jewish athletes to join the newly founded sports club “Schild.” Although sports ... Show Source >
vermutlich 1935, Hamburg
List of Jewish Physicians in the Arztregisterbezirk Hamburg
Shortly after the National Socialist takeover, the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians [Kassenärztliche Vereinigung] and the medical association began compiling lists of those physicians considered “Jewish” or “non-Aryan.” These lists were not public, but were shared with welfare offices, ... Show Source >
1936, Berlin
The Boys from the „Gush“. A Jewish Book for Young Adults, Berlin 1936, pp. 22-23
This double page is taken from the Zionist young adult book “Die Jungen vom Gusch” [The Boys from the Gush] written by Bernhard Gelbart and published in 1936 by the Berlin-based Kedem Verlag. The 125-page novel is addressed to youths. The excerpt presented here describes a meeting of a Zionist youth ... Show Source >
veröffentlicht 1937, entstanden zwischen 1931-1937, Hamburg
Erich Kastan, Photograph of the Temple on Innenraums des Tempels Oberstraße, Hamburg, 1937
This black and white photograph of the interior of the Temple at Oberstraße was published in 1937. It was taken by Erich Kastan, a photographer of Jewish origin who lived in Hamburg at the time. The image presents an overview of the space including the essential elements of a synagogue: the floor-to-ceiling ... Show Source >
Februar 1937 - Januar 1938, Hamburg
Calls for Donations for the Jewish Winter Relief for the Area of the Hanse City of Hamburg from the Gemeindeblatt [Congregation Newsletter], drawn by Hans Rudolf Growald, Hamburg, 1937/38
These five drawings published in different issues of the Gemeindeblatt [Congregation Newsletter] and the Jüdisches Gemeindeblatt für das Gebiet der Hansestadt Hamburg [Jewish Congregation Newsletter for the Area of the Hanse City of Hamburg] solicited donations for the Jewish Winter Relief in the winter ... Show Source >
January 09, 1938, Hamburg
Greeting by Max Warburg on the Occasion of the Opening of the Jewish Community Center, Hamburg, January 9, 1938
The founding of the Jewish community center and its opening ceremony in the Hamburg neighborhood of Rotherbaum on January 9, 1938 was an unmistakable sign of self-assertion and spiritual resistance. It was reflected in the inaugural speech given by banker Max Moritz Warburg, both in his words and between ... Show Source >
November 01, 1938, Hamburg
Renaming of Hallerstraße in Ostmarkstraße, Hamburg, November 1st, 1938
This photo was published in the newspaper Hamburger Anzeiger on November 1st, 1938. It shows an older man in work clothes and peaked cap with a street sign reading “Hallerstrasse,” which he has just removed, tucked under his left arm. He is looking at the new sign reading “Ostmarkstrasse” he has just ... Show Source >
November 23, 1938
Rulandseck, November 1938, Herbert Heinemann: The Three Rulands, Reichssender Hamburg, November 23, 1938 (00:00-1:58)
This is an excerpt from a cabaret program broadcast monthly by various radio stations under the title “Rulands-Eck.” A trio of singers who called themselves “The Three Rulands” [Die Drei Rulands] were responsible for writing the program. This episode of “Rulands-Eck” which was broadcast by the Reichssender ... Show Source >
November 24, 1938, Hamburg
Memorandum by the Superior School Authority – School Administration, November 24, 1938
This ca. one pagelong memorandum written by the Hamburg school administration authority and dated November 24, 1938 records a statement by Arthur Spier, director of the Talmud Torah School and the Israelitischer Gemeindeverband in Hamburg’s [Association of Israelite Communities in Hamburg] delegate for ... Show Source >

1940s

October 17, 1944, Berlin
Letter by Karl Bodenschatz, Chief of the Ministeramt Reichsmarschall des Großdeutschen Reiches, Berlin, October 17, 1944
The document possibly most significant for Friedrich Wilhelm Lübbert’s life (and survival) is dated October 17, 1944 and signed by “General der Flieger und Chef des Ministeramts Reichsmarschall” Karl Bodenschatz. In it he confirms that Friedrich Wilhelm Lübbert, a businessman of Jewish ancestry, was ... Show Source >
July 08, 1945, Hamburg
Minutes of a Meeting to Reconstitute the Jewish Congregation in Hamburg, July 1945
On July 8, 1945, a Sunday, twelve Hamburg Jews gathered in the apartment of Chaim Golenzer at Rutschbahn 25a, a so-called “Judenhaus,” with the intention to reorganize the congregation that had previously been eradicated by the National Socialist regime. They were all former members of Hamburg's German-Israelite Congregation. ... Show Source >

1950s

April 1950, Hamburg
Hannah Arendt, Jewish Cultural Reconstruction Field Reports, 1948–1951, Field Report No. 18, February 15 – March 10 1950
Hannah Arendt, a Jewish intellectual who had fled to the United States in 1941, wrote this field report during her first trip back to Germany after the war. In contrast to her now famous account “The Aftermath of Nazi Rule. Report from Germany”, her field report directly mentions the circumstances which ... Show Source >
Anfang 1957
Friedrich Nieland, How Many World (Money) Wars Must the Peoples of the World Lose? Open Letter to all Government Ministers and Members of Parliament of the Federal Republic, pp. 3–4, Hamburg 1957
In early 1957, Hamburg timber merchant Friedrich Nieland distributed a 39-page brochure titled “How Many World (Money) Wars Must the Peoples of the World Lose? Open Letter to All Government Ministers and Members of Parliament of the Federal Republic.” The brochure was published with a print run of 2,000 ... Show Source >
February 1958, Nürnberg
Hermann Kellenbenz, Sephardim on the Lower Elbe. Their Economic and Political Significance from the End of the 16th to the Early 18th Century, Wiesbaden 1958
The study “Sephardic Jews on the Lower Elbe” published by Franz Steiner Verlag in 1958 as volume 40 of their supplement to the academic journal Vierteljahresschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (edited by Hermann Aubin) may be considered a central contribution to Hamburg’s Jewish history of ... Show Source >

1960s

Jacob Sonderling, This is my Life (Memoirs), Los Angeles, 1961-1964 [Excerpt], p. 3-5.
This excerpt from the autobiographical notes by Rabbi Dr. Jacob (Jakob) Sonderling (1878-1964), who worked in Hamburg between 1908 and 1922/23, provides insight into a life shaped by migration and the search for belonging. Those aspects in Sonderling’s transnational biography which are closely linked ... Show Source >
April 30, 1964, Hamburg
Letter from Senator Helmut Schmidt to Bishop Hans-Otto Wölber, Hamburg, April 30, 1964
This source consists of five machine typed letters of one or two pages dating from the period between April and September 1964. Copies are kept in two locations: the Helmut Schmidt archive at the Archiv der sozialen Demokratie, Bonn and in the files of Bishop Hans-Otto Wölber at the Landeskirchliches ... Show Source >
May 13, 1964, Hamburg
Letter from Bishop Hans-Otto Wölber to Senator Helmut Schmidt, Hamburg, May 13, 1964
This source consists of five machine typed letters of one or two pages dating from the period between April and September 1964. Copies are kept in two locations: the Helmut Schmidt archive at the Archiv der sozialen Demokratie, Bonn and in the files of Bishop Hans-Otto Wölber at the Landeskirchliches ... Show Source >
July 13, 1964, Hamburg
Letter from Senator Helmut Schmidt to Bischop Hans-Otto Wölber, Hamburg, July 13, 1964
This source consists of five machine typed letters of one or two pages dating from the period between April and September 1964. Copies are kept in two locations: the Helmut Schmidt archive at the Archiv der sozialen Demokratie, Bonn and in the files of Bishop Hans-Otto Wölber at the Landeskirchliches ... Show Source >
August 26, 1964, Hamburg
Letter from Senator Helmut Schmidt to Bischop Hans-Otto Wölber, Hamburg, August 26, 1964
This source consists of five machine typed letters of one or two pages dating from the period between April and September 1964. Copies are kept in two locations: the Helmut Schmidt archive at the Archiv der sozialen Demokratie, Bonn and in the files of Bishop Hans-Otto Wölber at the Landeskirchliches ... Show Source >
September 01, 1965, Bromma Kyrka
Letter by Walter A. Berendsohn to Karl Ludwig Schneider, September 1, 1965
The P. Walter Jacob Archive, part of the Walter A. Berendsohn Research Center for German Exile Literature, houses a part of Berendsohn’s estate which includes his extensive correspondence. This handwritten draft of a two-page letter Berendsohn wrote or sent on September 1st, 1965 in Bromma, Sweden, stems ... Show Source >

1990s

November 20, 1998, Hamburg
Interview with Esther Bauer (B), November 20, 1998. Interviewer: Jens Michelsen (M), minute 00:09 to 3:53
This is an excerpt from an oral history interview with Esther Bauer conducted on November 20, 1998 by Jens Michelsen for Werkstatt der Erinnerung (WdE) [Workshop of Memory], the Oral History Archive run by the Forschungsstelle für Zeitgeschichte [Research Centre for Contemporary History]. It is the second ... Show Source >

2010s

2010, Hamburg
The Stolpersteine of Brahmsallee 13, Hamburg, July 22, 2007
This photograph shows six Stolpersteine [stumbling stones] embedded in the pavement in front of the residential building at Brahmsallee 13 by artist Gunter Demnig on July 22, 2007. The brass plate-covered concrete cubes measuring 10 x 10 cm remember three Jewish couples who lived at this address: Gretchen ... Show Source >
June 22, 2012, Berlin
Rachel Dror (01153/sdje/0048). Foundation Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, June 20, 2012 (Berlin). Interview: Lennart Bohne, Daniel Hübner, and Barbara Kurowska. Transcription and editing: Teresa Schäfer. Chapters 2.5 and 2.7.
These two sequencessequence I: 0:35:36–0:36:59 and sequence II: 0:43:49–0:45:44 from an interview with Rachel Dror discuss her experiences during and after the pogroms in Hamburg, where she was part of a group of Jewish youths preparing for life in Palestine, and also her subsequent return to her parental ... Show Source >